This is the oldest manuscript that is part of a collection of works on Astronomy and Mathematics, taken from the Greek sages Autolic, Euclid, Aristarchus, Hipsicles, and Theodosius. The most curious is that of Aristarchus: About the Size and Distance of the Sun and the Moon. The image shows Proposition 13, accompanied by a few glosses, which refers to the reason for the extension of the arc that divides the illuminated part of the dark part of the Moon into an eclipse of the Moon to the diameters of the Sun and the Moon.
What is the solar system? We live in a planetary system formed by the Sun and the celestial bodies that orbit around it, including our Earth. There are many solar systems in the Universe, but we call this, simply, the Solar System, which is ours for that! Well, in "our" Solar System there is a star, the Sun, which keeps many stars and diverse materials spinning around it under the influence of gravity: eight large planets, along with their satellites, smaller planets, asteroids, comets, interstellar dust and gas.