How big would a disc have to be to blot out the sun covering 5% of the land mass of earth?

Like this, but floating in space.

I imagine that this would also be influenced by the distance of the object from the sun, and that there is some ideal distance for this object to be? (and obviously the distance of the Earth from the Sun as well)

The angular diameter of the sun is approximately 30 arcminutes (roughly .0087 radians), or half of a degree.

The formula for angular diameter of a round object in radians is: $$delta = 2arctangfrac{diameter}{(2)distance}$$

Given this, we should also think about position. Assuming we want to continually block the same spot on Earth we need to the orbital period to one year. (I'm not sure if there is a technical difference between orbiting the Earth once per year such that you're always between the Sun and Earth, and just plain orbiting the Sun)

According to this calculator, our sun blocker would need at a height of 2,152,050km to orbit Earth once per year. So, given that we can set up our formula with…

$$.0087 = 2arctangfrac{diameter}{(2)2152050}$$

… and the needed diameter of an object should come out to be about 18,722km in diameter. Given that, Mr. Burns's terrestrial solution is far more practical, though certainly a nice orbital one is far more devious. Being evil isn't cheap.

Edit:

This answer is a bit rough as it doesn't calculate for the 5% of the Earth's land mass stipulation. The answer which would meet this would depend on whether only an umbral shadow qualifies, or if a penumbral shadow would also suffice. I suspect probably the prior. The shadow would certainly reach the Earth, but probably not cover 5% of it, which is a shame considering its diameter is actually larger than Earth's. Regardless, it's not a very elegant solution.

Researchers Discover That Global Mass Extinctions of Land-Dwelling Animals Follow a 27-Million-Year Cycle

Mass extinctions align with major asteroid impacts and devastating volcanic outpourings of lava called flood-basalt eruptions.

Researchers find that timing of mass extinctions lines up with asteroid impacts and massive volcanic eruptions.

Mass extinctions of land-dwelling animals — including amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds — follow a cycle of about 27 million years, coinciding with previously reported mass extinctions of ocean life, according to a new analysis published in the journal Historical Biology.

The study also finds that these mass extinctions align with major asteroid impacts and devastating volcanic outpourings of lava called flood-basalt eruptions — providing potential causes for why the extinctions occurred.

“It seems that large-body impacts and the pulses of internal Earth activity that create flood-basalt volcanism may be marching to the same 27-million-year drumbeat as the extinctions, perhaps paced by our orbit in the Galaxy,” said Michael Rampino, a professor in New York University’s Department of Biology and the study’s lead author.

Sixty-six million years ago, 70 percent of all species on land and in the seas, including the dinosaurs, suddenly went extinct, in the disastrous aftermath of the collision of a large asteroid or comet with the Earth. Subsequently, paleontologists discovered that such mass extinctions of marine life, in which up to 90 percent of species disappeared, were not random events, but seemed to come in a 26-million-year cycle.

In their Historical Biology study, Rampino and co-authors Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution for Science and Yuhong Zhu of NYU’s Center for Data Science, examined the record of mass extinctions of land-dwelling animals and concluded that they coincided with the extinctions of ocean life. They also performed new statistical analyses of the extinctions of land species and demonstrated that those events followed a similar cycle of about 27.5 million years.

What could be causing the periodic mass extinctions on land and in the seas? Mass extinctions are not the only events occurring in cycles: the ages of impact craters — created by asteroids and comets crashing to the Earth’s surface — also follow a cycle aligning with the extinction cycle.

Astrophysicists hypothesize that periodic comet showers occur in the Solar System every 26 to 30 million years, producing cyclical impacts and resulting in periodic mass extinctions. The Sun and planets cycle through the crowded mid-plane of the Milky Way Galaxy about every 30 million years. During those times, comet showers are possible, leading to large impacts on the Earth. The impacts can create conditions that would stress and potentially kill off land and marine life, including widespread dark and cold, wildfires, acid rain, and ozone depletion.

“These new findings of coinciding, sudden mass extinctions on land and in the oceans, and of the common 26- to 27-million-year cycle, lend credence to the idea of periodic global catastrophic events as the triggers for the extinctions,” said Rampino. “In fact, three of the mass annihilations of species on land and in the sea are already known to have occurred at the same times as the three largest impacts of the last 250 million years, each capable of causing a global disaster and resulting mass extinctions.”

The researchers were surprised to find another possible explanation beyond asteroids for mass extinctions: flood-basalt eruptions, or giant volcanic eruptions that cover vast areas with lava. All eight of the coinciding mass die-offs on land and in the oceans matched times of flood-basalt eruptions. These eruptions also would have created severe conditions for life, including brief periods of intense cold, acid rain, and ozone destruction and increased radiation longer term, eruptions could lead to lethal greenhouse heating and more acid and less oxygen in the ocean.

“The global mass extinctions were apparently caused by the largest cataclysmic impacts and massive volcanism, perhaps sometimes working in concert,” added Rampino.

Reference: “A 27.5-My underlying periodicity detected in extinction episodes of non-marine tetrapods” by Michael R. Rampino, Ken Caldeira and Yuhong Zhu, 10 December 2020, Historical Biology.
DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2020.1849178

The basics of the 2024 total solar eclipse

The length of totality varies from one total solar eclipse to the next. That’s due to the fact that Earth is not always at the same distance from the Sun, and the Moon is not always the same distance from Earth. The Earth-Sun distance varies by 3 percent and the Moon-Earth distance by as much as 12 percent. The result is that maximum duration of totality for any eclipse between 2000 B.C. and A.D. 3000 is 7 minutes 29 seconds. (However, that extra-long eclipse doesn’t occur until July 16, 2186, so don’t get too excited for it.)

While the maximum length of totality during the April 8, 2024, eclipse won’t be that long, it’s still a worthy chunk of time: 4 minutes, 28 seconds. And as with the Great American Eclipse in 2017, everyone in the contiguous U.S. will at least be treated to a partial eclipse. In fact, as long as you have clear skies on eclipse day, the Moon will cover no less than 16.15 percent of the Sun’s brilliant surface — and that minimum coverage comes at Tatoosh Island, a tiny speck of land west of Neah Bay, Washington. But keep in mind, although our satellite covering any part of the Sun’s disk sounds cool, you’ll want to set your sights higher.

Likening a partial eclipse to a total eclipse is like comparing almost dying to dying. If you are outside during a solar eclipse with 16 percent coverage, you won’t even notice the Sun getting darker. And it doesn’t matter whether the partial eclipse above your location is 16, 56, or 96 percent only totality reveals the true celestial spectacles: two diamond rings, the Sun’s glorious corona, 360° of sunset, and stars revealing themselves in the daytime.

To see any of this, you must be in the path of totality. That said, your next goal is to be as close to the center line as possible. The fact that the Moon’s shadow is round means that the longest eclipse occurs at its center line, because that’s where you’ll experience the lunar shadow’s full width.

Additions [ ]

Character
Bethany

Jacob and Esau
Jacob Esau
Health
Damage 3.5 (*1.00) 2.75 (*1.50) 3.75 (*1.00)
Tears +0 3.00 2.50
Shot Speed 1 1.15 0.85
Range 6.5 5.00 8.00
Speed 1.0 1.00 1.00
Luck 0 1.00 -1.00
Starting Pickups 4 Soul Charges None None
Starting Item(s) Book of Virtues None None

There is also a "tainted character" for each existing playable character (including Bethany and Jacob and Esau ) which can be unlocked by finding a hidden room on the new stage "Home". Because of that, the total number of playable characters in the game is 34.

Contents

The Precambrian includes approximately 90% of geologic time. It extends from 4.6 billion years ago to the beginning of the Cambrian Period (about 541 Ma). It includes three eons, the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic.

Major volcanic events altering the Earth's environment and causing extinctions may have occurred 10 times in the past 3 billion years. [4]

Hadean Eon Edit

During Hadean time (4.6–4 Ga), the Solar System was forming, probably within a large cloud of gas and dust around the sun, called an accretion disc from which Earth formed 4,500 million years ago . [5] The Hadean Eon is not formally recognized, but it essentially marks the era before we have adequate record of significant solid rocks. The oldest dated zircons date from about 4,400 million years ago . [6] [7] [8]

Earth was initially molten due to extreme volcanism and frequent collisions with other bodies. Eventually, the outer layer of the planet cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterwards, possibly as a result of the impact of a large planetoid with the Earth. [9] [10] Some of this object's mass merged with the Earth, significantly altering its internal composition, and a portion was ejected into space. Some of the material survived to form an orbiting moon. More recent potassium isotopic studies suggest that the Moon was formed by a smaller, high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact cleaving off a significant portion of the Earth. [11] Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered from comets, produced the oceans. [12] However, more recently, in August 2020, researchers reported that sufficient water to fill the oceans may have always been on the Earth since the beginning of the planet's formation. [1] [2] [3]

During the Hadean the Late Heavy Bombardment occurred (approximately 4,100 to 3,800 million years ago ) during which a large number of impact craters are believed to have formed on the Moon, and by inference on Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars as well.

Archean Eon Edit

The Earth of the early Archean ( 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago ) may have had a different tectonic style. During this time, the Earth's crust cooled enough that rocks and continental plates began to form. Some scientists think because the Earth was hotter, that plate tectonic activity was more vigorous than it is today, resulting in a much greater rate of recycling of crustal material. This may have prevented cratonisation and continent formation until the mantle cooled and convection slowed down. Others argue that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle is too buoyant to subduct and that the lack of Archean rocks is a function of erosion and subsequent tectonic events. Some geologists view the sudden increase of aluminum content in zircons as indicator of the beginning of plate tectonics. [13]

In contrast to the Proterozoic, Archean rocks are often heavily metamorphized deep-water sediments, such as graywackes, mudstones, volcanic sediments and banded iron formations. Greenstone belts are typical Archean formations, consisting of alternating high- and low-grade metamorphic rocks. The high-grade rocks were derived from volcanic island arcs, while the low-grade metamorphic rocks represent deep-sea sediments eroded from the neighboring island rocks and deposited in a forearc basin. In short, greenstone belts represent sutured protocontinents. [14]

The Earth's magnetic field was established 3.5 billion years ago. The solar wind flux was about 100 times the value of the modern Sun, so the presence of the magnetic field helped prevent the planet's atmosphere from being stripped away, which is what probably happened to the atmosphere of Mars. However, the field strength was lower than at present and the magnetosphere was about half the modern radius. [15]

Proterozoic Eon Edit

The geologic record of the Proterozoic ( 2,500 to 541 million years ago ) is more complete than that for the preceding Archean. In contrast to the deep-water deposits of the Archean, the Proterozoic features many strata that were laid down in extensive shallow epicontinental seas furthermore, many of these rocks are less metamorphosed than Archean-age ones, and plenty are unaltered. [16] Study of these rocks show that the eon featured massive, rapid continental accretion (unique to the Proterozoic), supercontinent cycles, and wholly modern orogenic activity. [17] Roughly 750 million years ago , [18] the earliest-known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia, 600–540 Ma. [7] [19]

The first-known glaciations occurred during the Proterozoic, one began shortly after the beginning of the eon, while there were at least four during the Neoproterozoic, climaxing with the Snowball Earth of the Varangian glaciation. [20]

The Phanerozoic Eon is the current eon in the geologic timescale. It covers roughly 541 million years. During this period continents drifted about, eventually collected into a single landmass known as Pangea and then split up into the current continental landmasses.

The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras – the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic.

Most of the evolution of multicellular life occurred during this time period.

Paleozoic Era Edit

The Paleozoic spanned from roughly 542 to 251 million years ago (Ma) [7] and is subdivided into six geologic periods from oldest to youngest they are the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian. Geologically, the Paleozoic starts shortly after the breakup of a supercontinent called Pannotia and at the end of a global ice age. Throughout the early Paleozoic, the Earth's landmass was broken up into a substantial number of relatively small continents. Toward the end of the era the continents gathered together into a supercontinent called Pangaea, which included most of the Earth's land area.

Cambrian Period Edit

The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 541.0 ± 1.0 Ma. [7] Cambrian continents are thought to have resulted from the breakup of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Pannotia. The waters of the Cambrian period appear to have been widespread and shallow. Continental drift rates may have been anomalously high. Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia remained independent continents following the break-up of the supercontinent of Pannotia. Gondwana started to drift toward the South Pole. Panthalassa covered most of the southern hemisphere, and minor oceans included the Proto-Tethys Ocean, Iapetus Ocean and Khanty Ocean.

Ordovician period Edit

The Ordovician period started at a major extinction event called the Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event some time about 485.4 ± 1.9 Ma. [7] During the Ordovician the southern continents were collected into a single continent called Gondwana. Gondwana started the period in the equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole. Early in the Ordovician the continents Laurentia, Siberia and Baltica were still independent continents (since the break-up of the supercontinent Pannotia earlier), but Baltica began to move toward Laurentia later in the period, causing the Iapetus Ocean to shrink between them. Also, Avalonia broke free from Gondwana and began to head north toward Laurentia. The Rheic Ocean was formed as a result of this. By the end of the period, Gondwana had neared or approached the pole and was largely glaciated.

The Ordovician came to a close in a series of extinction events that, taken together, comprise the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct. The only larger one was the Permian-Triassic extinction event. The extinctions occurred approximately 447 to 444 million years ago [7] and mark the boundary between the Ordovician and the following Silurian Period.

The most-commonly accepted theory is that these events were triggered by the onset of an ice age, in the Hirnantian faunal stage that ended the long, stable greenhouse conditions typical of the Ordovician. The ice age was probably not as long-lasting as once thought study of oxygen isotopes in fossil brachiopods shows that it was probably no longer than 0.5 to 1.5 million years. [21] The event was preceded by a fall in atmospheric carbon dioxide (from 7000ppm to 4400ppm) which selectively affected the shallow seas where most organisms lived. As the southern supercontinent Gondwana drifted over the South Pole, ice caps formed on it. Evidence of these ice caps have been detected in Upper Ordovician rock strata of North Africa and then-adjacent northeastern South America, which were south-polar locations at the time.

Silurian Period Edit

The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that started about 443.8 ± 1.5 Ma. [7] During the Silurian, Gondwana continued a slow southward drift to high southern latitudes, but there is evidence that the Silurian ice caps were less extensive than those of the late Ordovician glaciation. The melting of ice caps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea levels, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity. Other cratons and continent fragments drifted together near the equator, starting the formation of a second supercontinent known as Euramerica. The vast ocean of Panthalassa covered most of the northern hemisphere. Other minor oceans include Proto-Tethys, Paleo-Tethys, Rheic Ocean, a seaway of Iapetus Ocean (now in between Avalonia and Laurentia), and newly formed Ural Ocean.

Devonian Period Edit

The Devonian spanned roughly from 419 to 359 Ma. [7] The period was a time of great tectonic activity, as Laurasia and Gondwana drew closer together. The continent Euramerica (or Laurussia) was created in the early Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica, which rotated into the natural dry zone along the Tropic of Capricorn. In these near-deserts, the Old Red Sandstone sedimentary beds formed, made red by the oxidized iron (hematite) characteristic of drought conditions. Near the equator Pangaea began to consolidate from the plates containing North America and Europe, further raising the northern Appalachian Mountains and forming the Caledonian Mountains in Great Britain and Scandinavia. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent of Gondwana. The remainder of modern Eurasia lay in the Northern Hemisphere. Sea levels were high worldwide, and much of the land lay submerged under shallow seas. The deep, enormous Panthalassa (the "universal ocean") covered the rest of the planet. Other minor oceans were Paleo-Tethys, Proto-Tethys, Rheic Ocean and Ural Ocean (which was closed during the collision with Siberia and Baltica).

Carboniferous Period Edit

The Carboniferous extends from about 358.9 ± 0.4 to about 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma. [7]

A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous this created the widespread epicontinental seas and carbonate deposition of the Mississippian. There was also a drop in south polar temperatures southern Gondwana was glaciated throughout the period, though it is uncertain if the ice sheets were a holdover from the Devonian or not. These conditions apparently had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush coal swamps flourished within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers. A mid-Carboniferous drop in sea-level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites especially hard. This sea-level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian Period from the Pennsylvanian period. [22]

The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain building, as the supercontinent Pangea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America-Europe (Laurussia) along the present line of eastern North America. This continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, and the Alleghenian orogeny in North America it also extended the newly uplifted Appalachians southwestward as the Ouachita Mountains. [23] In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural mountains. There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous the Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys. Other minor oceans were shrinking and eventually closed the Rheic Ocean (closed by the assembly of South and North America), the small, shallow Ural Ocean (which was closed by the collision of Baltica, and Siberia continents, creating the Ural Mountains) and Proto-Tethys Ocean.

Permian Period Edit

The Permian extends from about 298.9 ± 0.15 to 252.17 ± 0.06 Ma. [7]

During the Permian all the Earth's major land masses, except portions of East Asia, were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean (Panthalassa, the universal sea), and the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that was between Asia and Gondwana. The Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic Era. Large continental landmasses create climates with extreme variations of heat and cold ("continental climate") and monsoon conditions with highly seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea.

Mesozoic Era Edit

The Mesozoic extended roughly from 252 to 66 million years ago . [7]

After the vigorous convergent plate mountain-building of the late Paleozoic, Mesozoic tectonic deformation was comparatively mild. Nevertheless, the era featured the dramatic rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea. Pangaea gradually split into a northern continent, Laurasia, and a southern continent, Gondwana. This created the passive continental margin that characterizes most of the Atlantic coastline (such as along the U.S. East Coast) today.

Triassic Period Edit

The Triassic Period extends from about 252.17 ± 0.06 to 201.3 ± 0.2 Ma. [7] During the Triassic, almost all the Earth's land mass was concentrated into a single supercontinent centered more or less on the equator, called Pangaea ("all the land"). This took the form of a giant "Pac-Man" with an east-facing "mouth" constituting the Tethys sea, a vast gulf that opened farther westward in the mid-Triassic, at the expense of the shrinking Paleo-Tethys Ocean, an ocean that existed during the Paleozoic.

The remainder was the world-ocean known as Panthalassa ("all the sea"). All the deep-ocean sediments laid down during the Triassic have disappeared through subduction of oceanic plates thus, very little is known of the Triassic open ocean. The supercontinent Pangaea was rifting during the Triassic—especially late in the period—but had not yet separated. The first nonmarine sediments in the rift that marks the initial break-up of Pangea—which separated New Jersey from Morocco—are of Late Triassic age in the U.S., these thick sediments comprise the Newark Supergroup. [24] Because of the limited shoreline of one super-continental mass, Triassic marine deposits are globally relatively rare despite their prominence in Western Europe, where the Triassic was first studied. In North America, for example, marine deposits are limited to a few exposures in the west. Thus Triassic stratigraphy is mostly based on organisms living in lagoons and hypersaline environments, such as Estheria crustaceans and terrestrial vertebrates. [25]

Jurassic Period Edit

The Jurassic Period extends from about 201.3 ± 0.2 to 145.0 Ma. [7] During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana the Gulf of Mexico opened in the new rift between North America and what is now Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was relatively narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous Period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart. [26] The Tethys Sea closed, and the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of glaciation. As in the Triassic, there was apparently no land near either pole, and no extensive ice caps existed. The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of the continent was submerged under shallow tropical seas famous locales include the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the renowned late Jurassic lagerstätten of Holzmaden and Solnhofen. [27] In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface. [28] Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation. The first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern Cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny. [29] Important Jurassic exposures are also found in Russia, India, South America, Japan, Australasia and the United Kingdom.

Cretaceous Period Edit

The Cretaceous Period extends from circa 145 million years ago to 66 million years ago . [7]

During the Cretaceous, the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its breakup into present day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. As the Atlantic Ocean widened, the convergent-margin orogenies that had begun during the Jurassic continued in the North American Cordillera, as the Nevadan orogeny was followed by the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. Though Gondwana was still intact in the beginning of the Cretaceous, Gondwana itself broke up as South America, Antarctica and Australia rifted away from Africa (though India and Madagascar remained attached to each other) thus, the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans were newly formed. Such active rifting lifted great undersea mountain chains along the welts, raising eustatic sea levels worldwide.

To the north of Africa the Tethys Sea continued to narrow. Broad shallow seas advanced across central North America (the Western Interior Seaway) and Europe, then receded late in the period, leaving thick marine deposits sandwiched between coal beds. At the peak of the Cretaceous transgression, one-third of Earth's present land area was submerged. [30] The Cretaceous is justly famous for its chalk indeed, more chalk formed in the Cretaceous than in any other period in the Phanerozoic. [31] Mid-ocean ridge activity—or rather, the circulation of seawater through the enlarged ridges—enriched the oceans in calcium this made the oceans more saturated, as well as increased the bioavailability of the element for calcareous nanoplankton. [32] These widespread carbonates and other sedimentary deposits make the Cretaceous rock record especially fine. Famous formations from North America include the rich marine fossils of Kansas's Smoky Hill Chalk Member and the terrestrial fauna of the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation. Other important Cretaceous exposures occur in Europe and China. In the area that is now India, massive lava beds called the Deccan Traps were laid down in the very late Cretaceous and early Paleocene.

Cenozoic Era Edit

The Cenozoic Era covers the 66 million years since the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event up to and including the present day. By the end of the Mesozoic era, the continents had rifted into nearly their present form. Laurasia became North America and Eurasia, while Gondwana split into South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent, which collided with the Asian plate. This impact gave rise to the Himalayas. The Tethys Sea, which had separated the northern continents from Africa and India, began to close up, forming the Mediterranean Sea.

Paleogene Period Edit

The Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) Period is a unit of geologic time that began 66 and ended 23.03 Ma [7] and comprises the first part of the Cenozoic Era. This period consists of the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene Epochs.

Paleocene Epoch Edit

The Paleocene, lasted from 66 million years ago to 56 million years ago . [7]

In many ways, the Paleocene continued processes that had begun during the late Cretaceous Period. During the Paleocene, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Supercontinent Laurasia had not yet separated into three continents. Europe and Greenland were still connected. North America and Asia were still intermittently joined by a land bridge, while Greenland and North America were beginning to separate. [33] The Laramide orogeny of the late Cretaceous continued to uplift the Rocky Mountains in the American west, which ended in the succeeding epoch. South and North America remained separated by equatorial seas (they joined during the Neogene) the components of the former southern supercontinent Gondwana continued to split apart, with Africa, South America, Antarctica and Australia pulling away from each other. Africa was heading north toward Europe, slowly closing the Tethys Ocean, and India began its migration to Asia that would lead to a tectonic collision and the formation of the Himalayas.

Eocene Epoch Edit

During the Eocene ( 56 million years ago - 33.9 million years ago ), [7] the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. At the beginning of the period, Australia and Antarctica remained connected, and warm equatorial currents mixed with colder Antarctic waters, distributing the heat around the world and keeping global temperatures high. But when Australia split from the southern continent around 45 Ma, the warm equatorial currents were deflected away from Antarctica, and an isolated cold water channel developed between the two continents. The Antarctic region cooled down, and the ocean surrounding Antarctica began to freeze, sending cold water and ice floes north, reinforcing the cooling. The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 million years ago . [ citation needed ]

The northern supercontinent of Laurasia began to break up, as Europe, Greenland and North America drifted apart. In western North America, mountain building started in the Eocene, and huge lakes formed in the high flat basins among uplifts. In Europe, the Tethys Sea finally vanished, while the uplift of the Alps isolated its final remnant, the Mediterranean, and created another shallow sea with island archipelagos to the north. Though the North Atlantic was opening, a land connection appears to have remained between North America and Europe since the faunas of the two regions are very similar. India continued its journey away from Africa and began its collision with Asia, creating the Himalayan orogeny.

Oligocene Epoch Edit

The Oligocene Epoch extends from about 34 million years ago to 23 million years ago . [7] During the Oligocene the continents continued to drift toward their present positions.

Antarctica continued to become more isolated and finally developed a permanent ice cap. Mountain building in western North America continued, and the Alps started to rise in Europe as the African plate continued to push north into the Eurasian plate, isolating the remnants of Tethys Sea. A brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. There appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe since the faunas of the two regions are very similar. During the Oligocene, South America was finally detached from Antarctica and drifted north toward North America. It also allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow, rapidly cooling the continent.

Neogene Period Edit

The Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time starting 23.03 Ma. [7] and ends at 2.588 Ma. The Neogene Period follows the Paleogene Period. The Neogene consists of the Miocene and Pliocene and is followed by the Quaternary Period.

Miocene Epoch Edit

The Miocene extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 Ma. [7]

During the Miocene continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent, the subduction zone along the Pacific Ocean margin of South America caused the rise of the Andes and the southward extension of the Meso-American peninsula. India continued to collide with Asia. The Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and then disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish-Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma (ICS 2004). Subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea resulting in the Messinian salinity crisis near the end of the Miocene.

Pliocene Epoch Edit

The Pliocene extends from 5.333 million years ago to 2.588 million years ago . [7] During the Pliocene continents continued to drift toward their present positions, moving from positions possibly as far as 250 kilometres (155 mi) from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current locations.

South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama during the Pliocene, bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive marsupial faunas. The formation of the Isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, since warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off and an Atlantic cooling cycle began, with cold Arctic and Antarctic waters dropping temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean. Africa's collision with Europe formed the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. Sea level changes exposed the land-bridge between Alaska and Asia. Near the end of the Pliocene, about 2.58 million years ago (the start of the Quaternary Period), the current ice age began. The polar regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating every 40,000–100,000 years.

Quaternary Period Edit

Pleistocene Epoch Edit

The Pleistocene extends from 2.588 million years ago to 11,700 years before present. [7] The modern continents were essentially at their present positions during the Pleistocene, the plates upon which they sit probably having moved no more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) relative to each other since the beginning of the period.

Holocene Epoch Edit

The Holocene Epoch began approximately 11,700 calendar years before present [7] and continues to the present. During the Holocene, continental motions have been less than a kilometer.

The last glacial period of the current ice age ended about 10,000 years ago. [34] Ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 metres (115 ft) in the early part of the Holocene. In addition, many areas above about 40 degrees north latitude had been depressed by the weight of the Pleistocene glaciers and rose as much as 180 metres (591 ft) over the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and are still rising today. The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea. Holocene marine fossils are known from Vermont, Quebec, Ontario and Michigan. Other than higher latitude temporary marine incursions associated with glacial depression, Holocene fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain and cave deposits. Holocene marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any likely upthrusting of non-glacial origin. Post-glacial rebound in Scandinavia resulted in the emergence of coastal areas around the Baltic Sea, including much of Finland. The region continues to rise, still causing weak earthquakes across Northern Europe. The equivalent event in North America was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries.

The Atlantean Conspiracy

It is part of the natural physics of water and other fluids to always find their level and remain flat. If disturbed in any way, motion ensues until the flat level is resumed. If dammed up then released, the nature of all liquids is to quickly flood outwards taking the easiest course towards finding its new level.

In Cambridge, England there is a 20 mile canal called the Old Bedford which passes in a straight line through the Fenlands known as the Bedford Level. The water has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind and remains stationary making it perfectly suitable for determining whether any amount of convexity/curvature actually exists. In the latter part of the 19th century, Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, a famous Flat-Earther and author of the fine book, “Earth Not a Globe! An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion and the Only Material World in the Universe!” travelled to the Bedford level and performed a series of experiments to determine whether the surface of standing water is flat or convex.

There are rivers which flow east, west, north, and south - that is, rivers are flowing in all directions over the Earth's surface, and at the same time. Now, if the Earth were a globe, some of these rivers would be flowing up-hill and others down, taking it for a fact that there really is an ‘up’ and a ‘down’ in nature, whatever form she assumes. But, since rivers do not flow up-hill, and the globular theory requires that they should, it is a proof that the Earth is not a globe.” -William Carpenter, � Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (85)

56 comments:

25,000 miles around -
360 degrees in a circle -
1 degree = 69.4 miles
6 miles = less than 1/10th of a single degree of this circle.

Not going to notice this with the tests Dr. Rowbotham provided.

Please note this is just math, not fact.

'If the Earth was a globe of 25,000 miles, each successive flag would have to decline a definite and determined amount below the last'
While being true doubtful you would see it with the naked eye.

Spherical trigonometry dictates that a ball-Earth 25,000 miles in circumference would curvate 8 inches per mile varying inversely with the square of the mile, so after six miles there would be an easily detectable and measurable 16 feet, 8 inches of downward curvature. But there is not. It is math and a fact, and you certainly would see it with the naked eye.

Watch for yourself, over 20 miles high, able to see hundreds of miles to the horizon and it's perfectly flat all around:

8 inches per mile, can you show me how you came to this number?

Oz, the Pythagorean Theorum gives 8 inches per mile as the curvature on a sphere 25,000 miles in circumference, and
Spherical Trigonometry dictates that it varies inversely with the square of the mile so the first mile establishes line of sight, the second mile would fall 8 inches, the third mile 32 inches, the fourth mile 72 inches, the fifth mile 128 inches and so on.

since you trust Pythagoras, what about Newtons Law of Gravitation?

So all it takes is a wide-angle lens and you're convinced the Earth is a ball, Oz? I don't "trust Pythagoras," I'm giving you the formula you asked for.

Gravity is not a "law," it's bullshit created by a knighted Freemason, "Sir" Isaac Newton, trying to explain why people don't fall off the underside of his spinning ball-Earth. Objects denser than the medium surrounding them fall while objects less dense than the medium surrounding them rise. This natural property of physics was well known and understood before Newton came along and piggy-backed his idea of "gravity" on.

If you fill a balloon with helium, a substance lighter than the nitrogen, oxygen and other elements which compose the air around it, the balloon will immediately fly upwards. If you fill a balloon with hydrogen, a substance even lighter than helium, the balloon will fly upwards even faster. If you blow a dandelion seed out of your hands, a substance just barely heavier than the air, it will float away and slowly but eventually fall to the ground. And if you drop an anvil from your hands, something much heavier than the air, it will quickly and directly fall straight to the ground. Now, this has absolutely nothing to do with “gravity.” The fact that light things rise up and heavy things fall down is simply a natural property of weight. That is very different from “gravity.” Gravity is a hypothetical magnetic-like force possessed by large masses which Isaac Newton needed to help explain the heliocentric theory of the universe.

Now, even if gravity did exist, why would it cause both planets to orbit the Sun and people to stick to the Earth? Gravity should either cause people to float in suspended circular orbits around the Earth, or it should cause the Earth to be pulled and crash into the Sun! What sort of magic is “gravity” that it can glue people’s feet to the ball-Earth, while causing Earth itself to revolve ellipses round the Sun? The two effects are very different yet the same cause is attributed to both.

“Take the case of a shot propelled from a cannon. By the force of the explosion and the influence of the reputed action of gravitation, the shot forms a parabolic curve, and finally falls to the earth. Here we may ask, why - if the forces are the same, viz., direct impulse and gravitation - does not the shot form an orbit like that of a planet, and revolve round the earth? The Newtonian may reply, because the impulse which propelled the shot is temporary and the impulse which propelled the planet is permanent. Precisely so but why is the impulse permanent in the case of the planet revolving round the sun? What is the cause of this permanence?” -N. Crossland, “New Principia”

“If the sun is pulling with such power at the earth and all her sister planets, why do they not fall down upon him?” -A. Giberne, “Sun, Moon, and Stars” (27)

Furthermore, this magnetic-like attraction of massive objects gravity is purported to have can be found nowhere in the natural world. There is no example in nature of a massive sphere or any other shaped-object which by virtue of its mass alone causes smaller objects to stick to or orbit around it! There is nothing on Earth massive enough that it can be shown to cause even a dust-bunny to stick to or orbit around it! Try spinning a wet tennis ball or any other spherical object with smaller things placed on its surface and you will find that everything falls or flies off, and nothing sticks to or orbits it. To claim the existence of a physical “law” without a single practical evidential example is hearsay, not science.

“That bodies in some instances are seen to approach each other is a fact but that their mutual approach is due to an ‘ attraction,’ or pulling process, on the part of these bodies, is, after all, a mere theory. Hypotheses may be sometimes admissible, but when they are invented to support other hypotheses, they are not only to be doubted but discredited and discarded. The hypothesis of a universal force called Gravitation is based upon, and was indeed invented with a view to support another hypothesis, namely, that the earth and sea together make up a vast globe, whirling away through space, and therefore needing some force or forces to guide it in its mad career, and so control it as to make it conform to what is called its annual orbit round the sun! The theory first of all makes the earth to be a globe then not a perfect globe, but an oblate spheroid, flattened at the ‘poles’ then more oblate, until it was in danger of becoming so flattened that it would be like a cheese and, passing over minor variations of form, we are finally told that the earth is pear-shaped, and that the ‘elipsoid has been replaced by an apoid!’ What shape it may assume next we cannot tell it will depend upon the whim or fancy of some astute and speculating ‘scientist.’” -Lady Blount and Albert Smith, “Zetetic Astronomy” (14)

How is it that “gravity” is so strong that it can hold all the oceans, buildings and people stuck to the under-side of the ball-Earth, but so weak that it allows birds, bugs, smoke, and balloons to casually evade its grips completely!? How is it that “gravity” holds our bodies clung to the under-side of the ball-Earth, but yet we can easily raise our legs and arms, walk or jump and feel no such constant downward pulling force? How is it that “gravity” can cause planets to revolve elliptical orbits around a single center of attraction? Ellipses by nature require two foci, and the force of gravitation would have to regularly increase and decrease to keep planets in constant orbit and prevent pulling them into direct collision courses!

So if you were to fly an aeroplane in solely one direction, where would you end up?

Depends what you mean by "one direction." If you mean starting 90 degrees to magnetic North and traveling East or West, you will eventually make a circle over the flat-Earth, around the North central pole, but will be periodically adjusting your course to remain 90 degrees from magnetic North. If by "one direction" you mean flying in a straight line regardless of compass / cardinal direction, then you will eventually end up in Antarctica no matter which direction you start, if you go straight on, you will eventually reach the Antarctic. Then if you continue flying, you will be the first person to ever even attempt a North/South circumnavigation of the Earth (Earth has only ever been circumnavigated East/West). If by "one direction" you mean a terrible corporate whore boy band, then you would probably end up in rehab somewhere :)

Through personal experience and an experiment with friends and a weather balloon I can safely say that at the very least the earth is round. The was from a standpoint directly above the U.S. From the data I have personally collected I would assume that the earth is roughly spherical in shape. Also I would like to know how flat the area/land around the river used for the flag experiment was because if it was perfectly flat and did not follow the same curvature(as I believe) and for instance went againts the curvature(as I believe) the water would be under pressure at the center greatly suing the results. I feel a better experiment would be to form the container with a the curvature and pour the water in to test rather than test the water in a container of unknown exact dimensions.

Round yes, spherical no. Or if you listen to NASA an oblate spheroid, flattened at the poles, chubby on the south-side, like a pear:

And the following amateur balloon goes well over 100,000 feet high and not an inch of curvature! Not only this but you can clearly see a hot-spot on the clouds directly underneath the Sun proving it can NOT be 93 million miles away:

Footage showing curvature is either shot with wide-angle lenses or added in post-production like NASA's CGI ball-planets. Peace

But that only addresses half of my concerns. The first part was simply why I believe what I believe. The second was what I believe. The third was the challenge. I'm not even going to argue that the earth isn't flat, I'm just saying the river and flag experiment (while works with no curvature beliefs) Does not disprove curvature beliefs due to many undocumented pieces of information and possible problems. And it was a good chunk of the article.
(Sorry for any grammatically/spelling errors this is from a tablet and not my computer)

The Old Bedford Level still exists in Cambridge, England, so the test can easily be repeated and your concerns can be checked. And if you have the means to perform a better test of the type you described I'm sure we'd all love to see it.

Hello Eric, I' ve some doubt about the question of the south pole: wasn't it discovered by Amundsen in 1911? didn't Richard Byrd fly over it in 1929?
Thanks

Some selective thinking here. should be easy enough to prove. fly or sail to the "end" of the "flat" earth, climb the 90 foot wall of ice, and show us already.

Eric Dubay Funny how no one has seen this "edge" of the earth if it was indeed flat and does the water just fall off this edge ? if there is no gravity as you suggest ? A oblate spheroid with gravity would account for this obvious flaw with your assertions .

Outer space does not exist, we are living in a holographic world. We are living in a prison that is controlled by Satanist.

Keep speaking your mind, Eric! I love your articles and your responses. It's nice having a blogger with the knowledge to argue his point. I would like to ask this question which is boggling my mind: what about the precession of the equinoxes? They account that phenomenon to the wobble of the ball/pear(lol)-earth on it's axis, how would a flat-earther explain this? Again, love reading your articles and sometimes the comment section even more. Keep doing what you're doing!

Thanks Anon, will do! The precession of the equinoxes is exactly what it's called, a precession of the stars movement and NOT the result of some inexplicable "wobble" of the spinning ball-Earth. It has been long proven in conclusive experiments by the top scientists of their time over a hundred years ago that the aether / firmament with the Sun, Moon, stars and "planets," revolves around a fixed Earth. Einstein admitted relativity was just to explain away these ground-breaking findings:

Antarctica is a 70,000+ mile ice-wall that surrounds us and holds in the oceans, so there's no water falling off the "edge." Whether deep along the Antarctic ice-plateau there is an edge, a barrier, or an infinite plane in unknown.

“How far the ice extends how it terminates and what exists beyond it, are questions to which no present human experience can reply. All we at present know is, that snow and hail, howling winds, and indescribable storms and hurricanes prevail and that in every direction ‘human ingress is barred by unsealed escarpments of perpetual ice,’ extending farther than eye or telescope can penetrate, and becoming lost in gloom and darkness.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (91)

Fabio, the South Pole is a hoax, they merely picked an arbitrary point along the Antarctic ice and put a red/white barbershop poll with a ball-Earth on it. They even admit that it's not the South pole though:

Earth is like a ring magnet with the north pole in the very center-point and the south "pole" being ALL points along the outer circumference. They claim to know where the "south pole" is, but using a compass you can only know where the north pole is. No matter where you are in Antarctica, the compass will point north towards the north pole and south will always be pointing further outwards along the Antarctica ice-plateau.

This is why they put the little red/white barbershop "south pole" somewhere that they ADMIT isn't the south pole! They didn't want tourists bringing their compasses to the little pole and saying, "hey, wait a minute, this isn't the south pole." So instead they claim "the real south pole" is several hundred meters away from the ceremonial pole they posted, that way you would have to spend hours outside your tour group with a compass scratching your head trying to figure out why the south pole clearly isn't the south pole.

If they can fake the New Testament and the landing a man on the moon, they can fake anything. We live in the age of the Great Deception.

Watch and see the natural form of water, when not forced into the shape of the container that is holding it. Then please tell me what that shape that is, please.

It is impossible for man to leave earths orbit and survive, NASA is a Hoax. Aliens are really Demons from the underworld, the under world. Why would America name the Space Program after Apollo,God of the Underworld?

First of all Eric a massive kudos to you for all your research and determination and courage to get the truth out.

Also I know you mention that you feel this discovery proves that we live on a world intelligently designed (I agree) - but who do you think created it?

I also have a question about the annual meteor showers that happen at various times in the year (and I've seen them) - what are they? And why do they happen the same time each year? How does this fit in with the flat earth? - would love to hear your thoughts.

Oz, your slow-motion video of water drops falling into water pools is supposed to prove what? The surface of the water pools in the video are completely flat and motionless until disturbed, then they wave and jostle until the perfectly flat level is resumed:

“The upper surface of a fluid at rest is a horizontal plane. Because if a part of the surface were higher than the rest, those parts of the fluid which were under it would exert a greater pressure upon the surrounding parts than they receive from them, so that motion would take place amongst the particles and continue until there were none at a higher level than the rest, that is, until the upper surface of the whole mass of fluid became a horizontal plane.” -W.T. Lynn, “First Principles of Natural Philosophy”

And thanks Anon. Meteors and shooting/falling stars are certainly a mystery. Some people say they are pieces of the solid glass sky dome falling to Earth and the regularity is caused by the Sun over-heating portions of the glass at certain times causing it to break off and fall to Earth:

As for my ideas about intelligent design and the intelligent designer, check out this video and article:

Great Feed. I mean, really. Mind. Blown. At first, I was like, no dude, the earth is CLEARLY round. But the ship on the sea thing with the lighthouses got me. One thing I can say for both sides is be a little more respectful. This is going to be difficult for any one to believe. Eric, I was really interested in how you believe this world was created, and then I read your very last comments, and it fits RIGHT into the Luciferian Project and the Negation of God. If you youtube the Spirit Science videos, they talk a lot about this.

Hey, thanks Cory! Not sure how you think my article and video about God and intelligent design are "negation of God?" The atheist materialist Big Bang cosmic accidental evolution crowd like NASA and Darwinians are the ones negating God. I'm saying of course God/conscious intelligence pre-existed the material world. I wrote a book called Spiritual Science (which is far more scientific, discerning and to the point than "Spirit Science" which is just animated explanations of every new age theory in existence). What Luciferian Project are you talking about? How am I "fitting RIGHT into" this and "negating God," by affirming God? I think you've completely misunderstood my metaphysics if you're claiming this. Peace

I believe Cory means your work "fits right in" with exposing the negation, Eric, not propagating it )

Ohhh, thanks Anon, I didn't get that. Is that what you meant Cory? In that case, yes I agree! :) Peace

Why is the moon spherical when it's full, and other planets when seen through telescopes? That does apply to earth?

The Earth, Moon, Sun, stars and "planets" are all flat discs, not spheres. This is why everyone, no matter where/when, only sees the same one side of the Moon, because there is only one side:

“The Moon presented a special math problem for the construction of the heliocentricity model. The only way to make the Moon fit in with the other assumptions was to reverse its direction from that of what everyone who has ever lived has seen it go. The math model couldn’t just stop the Moon like it did the Sun, that wouldn’t work. And it couldn’t let it continue to go East to West as we see it go, either at the same speed or at a different speed. The only option was to reverse its observed East to West direction and change its speed from about 64,000 miles an hour to about 2,200 miles an hour. This reversal, along with the change in speed, were unavoidable assumptions that needed to be adopted if the model was to have any chance of mimicking reality.” -Bernard Brauer

“They want you to believe that the Moon's rotation is perfectly synchronized with its orbit so that's why we only ever see one side of the Moon, rather than conclude the obvious - that the Moon is simply NOT rotating. Moreover, they had to slow down the Moon's speed by 58,870 mph AND reverse its direction to West-East to successfully sell their phony heliocentricity system to a gullible public. I don't think there is one person in many, many thousands - regardless of education - who knows that the Copernican Model had to turn the Moon's observable direction around and give it a new speed to accommodate the phases and eclipses.” -Marshall Hall

Through a telescope the stars and "planets" (known for thousands of years as "wandering stars" because they differ from the fixed stars in their relative motions only) appear merely as tiny dots of light, non-physical luminaries, NOT physical terra firma capable of landing on as shown in NASA's CGI pictures / animations. During waxing / waning cycles you can even sometimes see stars and planets through the Moon:

On March 7th, 1794, four astronomers (3 in Norwich, 1 in London) wrote in “The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society” that they “saw a star in the dark part of the moon, which had not then attained the first quadrature and from the representations which are given the star must have appeared very far advanced upon the disc.” Sir James South of the Royal Observatory in Kensington wrote in a letter to the Times newspaper April 7, 1848, that, "On the 15th of March, 1848, when the moon was seven and a half days old, I never saw her unillumined disc so beautifully. On my first looking into the telescope a star of about the 7th magnitude was some minutes of a degree distant from the moon's dark limb. I saw that its occultation by the moon was inevitable … The star, instead of disappearing the moment the moon's edge came in contact with it, apparently glided on the moon's dark face, as if it had been seen through a transparent moon or, as if a star were between me and the moon … I have seen a similar apparent projection several times … The cause of this phenomenon is involved in impenetrable mystery." In the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for June 8, 1860, Thomas Gaunt stated that the "Occultation of Jupiter by the moon, on the 24th of May, 1860, was seen with an achromatic of 3.3 inches aperture, 50 inches focus the immersion with a power of 50, and the emersion with a power of 70. At the immersion I could not see the dark limb of the moon until the planet appeared to touch it, and then only to the extent of the diameter of the planet but what I was most struck with was the appearance on the moon as it passed over the planet. It appeared as though the planet was a dark object, and glided on to the moon instead of behind it and the appearance continued until the planet was hid, when I suddenly lost the dark limb of the moon altogether.” I have personally also seen stars through the edge of the waxing/waning Moon. It actually happens fairly often if you are diligent and specifically observing for the phenomenon on starry nights you can occasionally see it even with the naked eye.

“During a partial solar eclipse the sun's outline has many times been seen through the body of the moon. But those who have been taught to believe that the moon is a solid opaque sphere, are ever ready with ‘explanations,’ often of the most inconsistent character, rather than acknowledge the simple fact of semi-transparency. Not only has this been proved by the visibility of the sun's outline through segments, and sometimes the very centre of the moon, but often, at new moon, the outline of the whole, and even the several shades of light on the opposite and illuminated part have been distinctly seen. In other words we are often able to see through the dark side of the moon's body to light on the other side.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (337)

“That the moon is not a perfectly opaque body, but a crystallized substance, is shown from the fact that when a few hours old or even at quarter we can through the unilluminated portion see the light shining on the other side. Stars have also been observed through her surface!” -J. Atkinson, “Earth Review Magazine”

If you keep going then, what's beyond earth?

Travel overseas! Expand your horizons! At 30,000 ft, you will see the curvature of the Earth.

Why don't you perform a test yourself? Inflate a high altitude balloon, add a camera and view for yourself the far edges of our world :)

They won't allow independent exploration of Antarctica so no one really knows how far the ice-plateau extends Southwards, whether there is an edge like Dark City, a barrier like Truman Show / Under the Dome, or an infinite plane like video games.

“How far the ice extends how it terminates and what exists beyond it, are questions to which no present human experience can reply. All we at present know is, that snow and hail, howling winds, and indescribable storms and hurricanes prevail and that in every direction ‘human ingress is barred by unsealed escarpments of perpetual ice,’ extending farther than eye or telescope can penetrate, and becoming lost in gloom and darkness.” -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (91)

And Shaggy Do, I live overseas and my grandfather's a pilot. I've done plenty of overseas travel and any curvature you think you see from 30,000 feet is just the curved glass windows in airplanes they use to remain flush with the fuselage. This amateur balloon footage goes up to 110,000 feet, almost 4 times higher than your plane was flying, and there is NO curvature whatsoever:

comn! this means that every single pilot in history has kept the damn secret, there ought to be thousands of claims around, and prob thousands of books about it.

anyone with a plane could realize this and make a thorough investigation.

also anyone with a plane could make the trip into the unknown iced wasstes.

Hello Eric, i am a new FE beliver. On some forum I posted a text regarding a Bredford Level experiment. As an answer I got this likn which says that other water level experiments proved the oposite. Do you know something about theese experiments? http://bit.ly/1JhOsRO
regards,
Aleksandar

Hey Aleksandar, yes, as a big media type event for the day, Hampden and Wallace made a $500 wager that Wallace couldn't prove the surface of the Bedford Level convex, as it had already been proven through several conclusive experiments to be perfectly flat. Wallace then created his own experiment which was a Masonic 13 feet 3 inches over the water. At one bridge he placed a white sheet with a black band on it, 3 miles in front a pole with a flag, and he stood 3 miles further atop another bridge covering a distance of 6 miles. Then looking through a telescope the top of the flag appeared above the black band and this was claimed as proof positive that the Earth/water curved upward towards the 3 mile point and curved back downwards to the second bridge. The flat Earthers of the day were rightly pissed off that Hampden and the world had been swindled by a rigged experiment. W. B. Carpenter published a 30 page pamphlet right afterwards called, "Water Not Convex, The Earth Not a Globe! Demonstrated By Alfred Russel Wallace on the 5th March 1870." Then Hampden himself wrote "Is Water Level or Convex After All? The Bedford Canal Swindle Detected and Exposed," where he explains the false measurements Wallace took by positioning the telescope too low on the first bridge. Hampden said, "Wallace will to their dying day regret and bewail the precipitate and indecent haste with which they grabbed and pocketed my$500. They must by this time hate the very sight of water: but as long as I live, neither they nor their friends shall be allowed to forget the lies, imposition, and fraud, which, for the sake of paltry gain, they disgraced themselves."

You do know that everything has two sides yes? even a disk has two sides, and to the flat earth thing? it would have to be the most stupid idea that anyone has come up with apart from religion. and the reason why water and anything else doesnt fly of is GRAVITY. If there wasny gravity then yes everything would fly off, and also if there was no such thing as space then the entire universe has breathable air. Please show us you breathing in space, that would prove everything

I have no doubts about flat Earth. My doubt is in measurement of Earth radius. It's crazy, because Earth is not a globe and all these measurements are nonsensical.

Of course we are using them to proof that a globe is non existent.

Another very important comment - actually two comments.

1. Sun is about 5000 km from Earth and has diameter 59 km. If in 'space' is a vacuum, Sun has no chances to warm the Earth. But it does through so huge isolator.

That means, if we don't understand how something works on flat Earth - it does not mean the Earth is not flat. It means that we don't understand how all of this works.

2. Why in Australia Southern Cross is not visible October/November?

I don't think that anyone has an answer, which again does not disprove a fact, that Earth is flat.

Similar problem we are having with distances on so called South hemisphere.

We know about maps - Peters projection and many possibilities of manipulating data on GPS's and using different speed on air traffic.

We're not sure how it works, but again - that does not disprove a flat Earth.

So the bottom line is - how can someone prove Earth as a globe!?

Water is a liquid substance, formless, like the wind, this substance adapts to its surroundings by adapting to their form, regardless. A water drop that is falling in the air, like most liquids, will adapt the shape base of its surroundings, in this case, the air/wind that surrounds it and its friction will make the water to take that spherical form,(in its liquid form). Keep in mind that the amount of water in a drop isn't as many as let's say a stream of water. Other things to consider is the molecular status of water, for example, a snowflake is also water in a frozen state, yet, its form is completely complex, different, and beautiful to say the least. It can be said that a snowflake is the true form of water, unfortunately, every single snowflake, although look alike, they are completely different from one another. One thing is for sure, water in its liquid state, always find its level,(to rest),flat, straight, and horizontal surface. A drop, is a drop, i.e.: a drop of blood, or milk, or a tear, etc, therefore it cannot be take into account to try to depict the form of water, which is formless.

Water = liquid/formless/flow/adapt/to rest/find its level which is horizontal and straight.

Just an opinion! Nice blog Eric!

I mean, aside from a controversial idea (which I am undecided about) you have a gift for comedy, generally.

You might find it interesting that a scientist at Lockheed showed that forcing two same-charge magnets together caused them to fall from a building slower than normal.

YT: SECRET UFO Propulsion Systems - Senior Lockheed Martin Research Scientist - Boyd Bushman
min: 3:30

which seems to imply there is a force called gravity and it is probably electromagnetic in nature.

I think its funny we are told that Pole Shifts happen as an explanation for diminishing electromagnetism of the earth, as opposed to things just winding down…

Genomic Entropy seems to imply the same thing: gradual decay as the creation continues to fall:

Geneticists:
Dr. Crow: we are inferior to caveman.
Dr. Knodrashov: no human geneticist doubts man is degenerating.
Dr. Lynch Even assuming a lower mutation rate, we are degenerating at 1%-5% per generation.

John Sanford on Genomic Entropy
http://youtu.be/_edD5HOx6Q0

Average cell in 15 yr old - up to 6,000 mutations per cell. (all your cells are different)
Skin cell in 60 yr old - up to 40,000 mutations
Mutations primary cause of aging and death.
“. little potential for substantially increasing the upper limit of human life span.” (upper limit: 120 yrs)
--Michael Lynch (Population Geneticist)
50% reduction in sperm count in men.

Around 100 new mutations per generation.

"According to astronomical observations, galaxies like our own experience about one supernova (a violently-exploding star) every 30 years. The gas and dust remnants from﻿ such explosions (like the Crab Nebula) expand outward rapidly and should remain visible for over a million years. Yet the nearby parts of our galaxy in which we could observe such gas and dust shells contain only about 200 supernova remnants. That number is consistent with only about 7,000 years worth of supernovas."

According to evolutionary theory, comets are supposed to be the same age as the solar system, about five billion years. Yet each time a comet orbits close to the sun, it loses so﻿ much of its material that it could not survive much longer than about 100,000 years. Many comets have typical ages of less than 10,000 years.
So far, none of the theoretical assumptions of science to explain this have been substantiated either by observations or realistic calculations.

"The stars of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, rotate about the galactic center with﻿ different speeds, the inner ones rotating faster than the outer ones. The observed rotation speeds are so fast that if our galaxy were more than a few hundred million years old, it would be a featureless disc of stars instead of its present spiral shape."

“The measurement of the earth’s spin rate shows that the earth is slowing down at a rate of 1 second per year. If earth is billions of years old, it’s initial spin rate would have been too fast for life or even the existence of our planet.”

“Most astronomers agree that short-term comets have a lifespan of 1,500--10,000 years. Astronomers have observed the death of 10 of these comets in last 100 years.
Since evolutionists realize all short-term comets should have “died” if the universe is 7--20 billion years old, they invent unverifiable explanations.”

NASA recently fired scientist David Coppedge, highly placed in the Cassini project, because he was handing out dvds on intelligent design based on statistical likelihood:
youtube: "Privileged Planet"

Hi Eric, really enjoy your study, not sure if you still read comments after 2 months the first comments were made. I'd like to leave a comment:-) everything you said made sense, I kind of believe thef flat earth but I cannot still abandoned the spherical theory! I believe the phitagoras formulas does not match reality but it is only a sixt sense how can there be such a drop for example. Even if it is true, the way I had studied at school many years ago, was that you would not notice the drop. Imagine a city of 40 miles, if you have a drop of 8 inches for mile only, and i don't believe in the exponential drop, we will have a rise and fall of around 1 hundred meters. If you could go higher enough into orbit and look down you will see people in that city walking not perpendicular to the earth, you will have people not only apparently walking up on one side of the city or walking down on the other side, but also peperdicular to the curvature of the earth. I kind of arguing with myself at this point I believe the Pithagoras drop is too sharp, the sphere created would just be too little. Perhaps the earth is much bigger than we think, or perhaps is an eye trick meaning that the curvature is present but we do not see or perceive it. I would be too freaky to see it, the refraction of ligth formula can be wrong too. It is possible that ligth bouncing off an object reach our eyes and wee see it even if it is hidden below the horizon, binoculars help too because light reach the our sight farther away. It is a mistery but another possible explanation is that the curvature happened just for the athmosphere gradually and visibly, while it happens with steps on the earth according to the landscape and it is tricky because there is not really an up and down.
I am also thinking about how many scientists and pilots in the Wolrd would have to be involved and keep quite. I kind of agreee with everything you say, I am also a young earth believer and you would not believe how much the two theories fit together. In fact one of the theories for the big flood presuppone a huge amount of water above the dome but this is another story. Let's join minds and even though something I added to the comments might sound unscientifics I would check them out anyway. I enjoyed watching some of your videos, thank you for stretching my mind to new horizons! Nice comments are welcomed. Have a good day. Ciao

Could you also take a look and comment about you air displacement theory to explain gravity.

How could anyone compare a wet tennis ball to Earth? That in itself is a theoretically derived falsity based on theory in order to simplify. The ball is on Earth it is not Earth. Of course pouring water on it causes spills. The point is that the water is poured onto the Earth and it skips around the tennis ball as quickly as gravity pulls it away. Gravity to the tennis ball is different than gravity to the Earth.

If this earth is in fact a ball. Surely someone would be able to tell me the angle at which the oceans curve? If this is indeed a ball, the oceans need to be curved. How can water be curved? Is this the true reason for tides? Just a thought.

To ALL the deluded time wasters who claim and clutch sooo deperately to the globe "CurveBall" (with top-spin) are either trolls or lazy armchair spectators to this show!
If you actually get up and test any of what you say for yourselves and for once TRUST YOUR SENSES! YES WE HAVE BEEN (AND MOST SADLY STILL ARE) PLAIN IGNORANT ! Blindly believing in a CURVE-BALL (no accident) THE ONLY QUESTION THAT IS IMPORTANT IS:
IS THE EARTH A SPINNING BALL - PROVE IT ! (Not with fictitious or invented theory or Because thats what my teacher told me or i saw it on TV - A test that I can walk outside and without a question of a doubt trust my senses and see it or feel the breeze or something - And you because YOU CANT !
The importance is not on what the actual shape may result to be ,I can guess from extensive research but IF ITS NOT A BALL AND ITS NOT SPINNING (which is basically scientifically provable although nothing can compete with armchair nay-science ) THEN SOMEONE HAS GOT SOME EXPLAINING TO DO! BLIND BELIEF IN A MODEL THAT EACH DAY YOUR SENSES TELL YOU DIFFERENT BUT THE TRUST IS PLACED IN YOUR TEACHER or NASA. -THE BIBLE , KORAN , VEDIC , VIKING , TORAH , MAYAN , INCA to name a few ALL knew the PLANATE (google this word) Earth is motionless and flatish. No curveball-only a circle? ---The horizon is proof and your eyes are the weak link in this optical distortion. (vanishing point vs telescopic lens taking into account the refraction of light . not to complete your research for you) . -- HOW TO BUILD ON A BALL (regardless of size even though this one is not as massive as your teacher told you it has dimensions) may very well be a universe best seller you should finish your research and publish - you will be rich even in pluto standards. ---THE FACT - NO ROAD, TUNNEL,BRIDGE,HOUSE, SKYSCRAPER OR ANY MAN MADE STRUCTURE FOR THAT MATTER BUILDS TAKING THE CURVE INTO ACCOUNT ! They use primitive tools like a spirit LEVEL or plumb to ensure that both horizontal and vertical are straight and true. WATER FLUID DYNAMICS - At no point on this curve-ball can you replicate water sticking to a ball . STOP - THINK . Ah you didn't think . so the molten core or magical gravity or the velcro atmosphere makes this a fact . STOP - don't think ! perfect, the research not yet found by armchair enthusiasts is that WE DONT KNOW WHAT THE EARTH INNERS LOOK LIKE CAUSE THE DEEPEST WE HAVE EVER BEEN IS 12KM . yip and it was abandoned after 15years . to drill down into the earths crust ONLY! SO HOW WOULD YOU KNOW ? WHAT I DO KNOW IS WHAT I SEE and test for myself -Water ALWAYS finds its lowest point ALWAYS and LEVELS .. ALWAYS . or if you like I come to your home and show you ? pls can I ?
Most people believe the moon landing cause they saw it on the radio . go look -eyes x 2 ,go listen -ears x 2 , speak - mouth x1 for a reason! I DONT CARE WHAT SHAPE IT TURNS OUT TO BE . DONT LOSE FOCUS OR ALLOW DISTRACTION .IS IT A SPINNING CURVEBALL ?? PROVE IT . CANT . WHY NOT . ?

To ALL the deluded time wasters who claim and clutch sooo deperately to the globe "CurveBall" (with top-spin) are either trolls or lazy armchair spectators to this show!
If you actually get up and test any of what you say for yourselves and for once TRUST YOUR SENSES! YES WE HAVE BEEN (AND MOST SADLY STILL ARE) PLAIN IGNORANT ! Blindly believing in a CURVE-BALL (no accident) THE ONLY QUESTION THAT IS IMPORTANT IS:
IS THE EARTH A SPINNING BALL - PROVE IT ! (Not with fictitious or invented theory or Because thats what my teacher told me or i saw it on TV - A test that I can walk outside and without a question of a doubt trust my senses and see it or feel the breeze or something - And you because YOU CANT !
The importance is not on what the actual shape may result to be ,I can guess from extensive research but IF ITS NOT A BALL AND ITS NOT SPINNING (which is basically scientifically provable although nothing can compete with armchair nay-science ) THEN SOMEONE HAS GOT SOME EXPLAINING TO DO! BLIND BELIEF IN A MODEL THAT EACH DAY YOUR SENSES TELL YOU DIFFERENT BUT THE TRUST IS PLACED IN YOUR TEACHER or NASA. -THE BIBLE , KORAN , VEDIC , VIKING , TORAH , MAYAN , INCA to name a few ALL knew the PLANATE (google this word) Earth is motionless and flatish. No curveball-only a circle? ---The horizon is proof and your eyes are the weak link in this optical distortion. (vanishing point vs telescopic lens taking into account the refraction of light . not to complete your research for you) . -- HOW TO BUILD ON A BALL (regardless of size even though this one is not as massive as your teacher told you it has dimensions) may very well be a universe best seller you should finish your research and publish - you will be rich even in pluto standards. ---THE FACT - NO ROAD, TUNNEL,BRIDGE,HOUSE, SKYSCRAPER OR ANY MAN MADE STRUCTURE FOR THAT MATTER BUILDS TAKING THE CURVE INTO ACCOUNT ! They use primitive tools like a spirit LEVEL or plumb to ensure that both horizontal and vertical are straight and true. WATER FLUID DYNAMICS - At no point on this curve-ball can you replicate water sticking to a ball . STOP - THINK . Ah you didn't think . so the molten core or magical gravity or the velcro atmosphere makes this a fact . STOP - don't think ! perfect, the research not yet found by armchair enthusiasts is that WE DONT KNOW WHAT THE EARTH INNERS LOOK LIKE CAUSE THE DEEPEST WE HAVE EVER BEEN IS 12KM . yip and it was abandoned after 15years . to drill down into the earths crust ONLY! SO HOW WOULD YOU KNOW ? WHAT I DO KNOW IS WHAT I SEE and test for myself -Water ALWAYS finds its lowest point ALWAYS and LEVELS .. ALWAYS . or if you like I come to your home and show you ? pls can I ?
Most people believe the moon landing cause they saw it on the radio . go look -eyes x 2 ,go listen -ears x 2 , speak - mouth x1 for a reason! I DONT CARE WHAT SHAPE IT TURNS OUT TO BE . DONT LOSE FOCUS OR ALLOW DISTRACTION .IS IT A SPINNING CURVEBALL ?? PROVE IT . CANT . WHY NOT . ?

Evidence everywhere says flat. theories, magic, unexplainable things say globe.

Great blog and stuff Eric.
I am a new believer that earth is definitely flat and I am accepting this with a relief.
The global earth theory is nothing but a trial to hide "the maker" and to drive every single believer to doubt his/her own beliefs.
Masons have been so much active since 1677.

Hi,name is Peet from South Africa.It took me a while to shake off the bullshit I have been taught.I just want to make a few observations:
1. Rivers cannot run uphill, which they would have to do in some cases.
2. Use Google Earth, check the elevation over a great distance: it is flat bar a few hills
etc.
3. The so called "prove", comparing earth's atmosphere with traveling in a car does
not gell.It is alleged that that is why we do not feel any wind or why we land in the same
spot when we jump up!
But a car is completely closed!
How can the atmosphere spin with the earth? Atmosphere is just air with a mixture of gases.
It is free, watch when the wind blows,it blows the air any which way!
And we are supposed to spin at about 1500 kph on the surface but we do not even feel any centrifugal force? Or wind? Refer back to point 3.
And the earth is moving through space, I forget the speed, also no wind, the atmosphere(air) is sucked so hard by gravity that it resists air rushing passed?
Also, look at this youtube video:
FLAT EARTH - AVIATION WOULDN'T WORK ON A GLOBE
One of the points in this video: Flight simulators do not take any curvature into account because there is'nt any.

I love the spreading of the truth on here! I have something i was thinking about that i know someone with more knowledge could use. if the earth is slowing down 1 sec a year then how come we still are seeing the same face of the moon. See what i mean. they say we never see the'back' ever because of absolute perfection. blah, blah,blah. It's science bro. Ha. More proof the earth is flat and Gods beautiful creation.

Hi Eric,
Thanks for this site. Awesome info.
Apart from the many flaws you pointed out,I thought of two things that do not make sense:
1. According to NASA they went up in space into a vacuum.
First off all, how can a vacuum exist, I remember according to science class long ago in
1967 our teacher said nature does not like a vacuum, air will rush in to fill the void if it can. And there is nothing between the so called atmosphere and space, so how is this possible?
2.And how can the rocket move the spaceship, the motor will be useless!
Yet look at the rediculous answer on NASA's website, it's unbelievable!:

Why Does a Rocket Work?
In space, an engine has nothing to push against. So how do rockets move there? Rockets work by a scientific rule called Newton's third law of motion. English scientist Sir Isaac Newton listed three Laws of Motion. He did this more than 300 years ago. His third law says that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The rocket pushes on its exhaust. The exhaust pushes the rocket, too. The rocket pushes the exhaust backward. The exhaust makes the rocket move forward.

The solution is so simple, why did I not think of that?!
But I think it only works in space because I sat in my car and I tried pushing against the window and it did not want to move!
What is weird is that nobody took them on for years!
Maybe a hell of a lot of people are part of the cover-up and the rest are too scared?

Shape of the Earth:

For starters, and contrary to what scientists have believed since classical antiquity, Earth is not a perfect sphere. Since the 17th and 18th centuries – thanks to improvements made in the field of astronomy and geodesy (a branch of mathematics dealing with the measurement of the Earth) – scientists have understood that the Earth is actually a flattened sphere.

This is what is known as an “oblate spheroid”, which is a sphere that is wider at its horizontal axis than it is at its vertical axis. According to the 2004 Working Group of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), Earth experiences a flattening of 0.0033528 at the poles. This flattening is due to Earth’s rotational velocity – a rapid 1,674.4 km/h (1,040.4 mph) – which causes the planet to bulge at the equator.

Because of this, the diameter of the Earth at the equator is about 43 kilometers (27 mi) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter. The latest measurements indicate that the Earth has an equatorial diameter of 12,756 km (7926 mi), and a polar diameter of 12713.6 km (7899.86 mi). This is true for other planets in the Solar System that have rapid rotations (like Jupiter and Saturn), and even stars like the rapidly-spinning Altair.

How to Get Rid of Garden Weeds

By getting rid of weeds (unwanted plants) springing up in your vegetable garden, you stop weeds from removing vital nutrients from the soil. If you find that weeding is taking up the majority of time in your garden, here are some simple techniques to help you reduce the time spent weeding AND increase the amount you harvest from your vegetable garden!

Note that it’s most critical to keep weeds away from newly emerging seedlings. Keep your crops weed-free for the first four weeks of their life.

1. Mulch Over Them

Use mulch (shredded leaves, brown cardboard, straw, or wood chips) to cover the soil around your plants! This covering blocks weed seeds from sunlight so they don’t germinate, inhibits growth underneath itself, and retains moisture. Mulch also provides needed nutrients as it decomposes over time, and moderates soil temperatures.

• Cover the soil between your plants and along rows with a layer of mulch to prevent weeds from growing. We recommend a layer that’s at least one inch thick.
• Keep the mulch a few inches from the base of your plants to discourage insect invasions and prevent rot, too.
• While we use organic mulch such as straw, there are also inorganic mulches including black plastic and landscaping fabric.

Note: If you use leaf blowers, many come with shredders that can turn yard debris into garden mulch fast, which saves you the costs of making or buying your own mulch. See our mulching guide.

Image: Straw used as mulch to suppress weeds, hold in moisture, and break down into soil. Credit: Jurga Jot/Shutterstock

2. Exclude the Light!

For persistent or numerous weeds, exclude light! Cover soil with dampened newspaper (black ink only) or brown cardboard (with any tape removed). Then cover that with 2 inches of straw or compost. This ensures that weeds don’t get the light they need to grow. There will still be some persistent perennial weeds that survive but most will not grow through, hence, very little weeding necessary. Plus, you’ll save on water and have happy worms and soil.

This works best, of course, when you are starting a new garden bed or a new garden space. Watch Janice Stillman, editor of The Old Farmer’s Almanac lay down a few layers of newspaper, wet it, adds mulch on the edges of the newspaper, and dumps compost on top of the newspaper bed! You’ll love having almost no weeds to contend with and as a bonus it helps build the soil. It couldn’t get any easier than this.

3. Pull Them Out or Dig Them Up

You’ll still need to manually pull out weeds during the season. It may not be your favorite chore but it’s oddly therapeutic and almost meditative for some of us! Wear waterproof gloves and consider a comfortable kneeling pad or camp stool for extended weeding sessions.

• Weeds will slide out of the soil easier when the soil is wet and the weeds are young.
• The trick to pulling weeds is to get the root out as well, since many common weeds—like dandelions—will regrow from any roots left in the ground. Pull the weed from its base (close to the soil line) and twist gently to dislodge the roots. If you accidentally snap the roots off, try using a fork to gently pry the rest of the plant out of the ground, roots and all.

If your weeds regrow, then you have a persistent root that you need to dig out. Use a spade or digging fork to dig up persistent weeds by the roots. Remove as many root pieces as you can.

While weeding, try to hold the trowel vertically (like a child holding a crayon) to eliminate strain on your wrist.

Here are a few common weeds and the best ways to remove them:

4. Use Homemade Herbicide Sprays

While some folks turn to dangerous chemicals, many weeds are actually resistant to herbicides and respond better to different methods of control. See 5 natural “weed killers” to get rid of competing plants while still keeping people, pets, wildlife, and waterways safe.

5. Hoe Them Down

When weeds have really sprung into action, nothing beats a good old-fashioned garden hoe with a long handle. Hoeing is best done in the morning when the soil is dry. The weeds will cut cleanly from the soil and this creates a “dust mulch,” which inhibits the germination of new weeds. You can let the weeds simply dry in the sun during the day and then take to the compost heap.

Make quick work of gliding through and getting too hard to reach spots. It’s especially useful early in the season. Once a week, even if there aren’t many weeds, quickly go over the surface and keep the soil moving. Over time, there won’t be many weeds left.

Image: There’s nothing like the trusty hoe with the long handle! Keep it nice and sharp.

6. Minimize Soil Disruption

If you hoe, do not overturn the soil or dig down below the surface (no-dig). We don’t want to expose the dormant weeds seeds to light and air which will only bring them back to the surface.

Some folks say it helps to weed at night! No kiddling. Research indicates that weeds may be stimulated to grow by a sudden flash of light, which is what you give them when you turn the soil over during the day. A German study concluded that by turning the soil at night, weed germination could be reduced by as much as 78 percent! You can try this method by working under a full Moon, or at dawn or dusk.

7. Chop Off Their Heads!

If dealing with weeds is too much of a hassle, at least resolve to keep them from setting seed. Once a week, use a grass whip or string trimmer and cut off their heads before they flower.

8. Keep Your Garden Edges Trimmed

Ever noticed many weeds collect at the edges of your yard or garden? Keep your grass and garden edges trimmed to cut down on invasions of weeds into your fertile garden soil. The places to watch are the not only the edges of your lawn but also around posts and fence lines as well as close to planting beds. Another idea is to grow perennials or ground roses that will shade those edges and make it easier for you!

9. Aerate Your Soil

Some types of weeds, especially those with deep roots, grow well because the soil is compacted. The plants roots aren’t getting the air, water, and nutrients they need so the weeds start to take over. If you rent an aerator from your local home improvement store, you’ll be amazed at how providing annual aeration will reduce the amount of deep-rooted weeds.

10. Reduce Open Garden Space

If your soil is rich and drains well, plant your plants closer together. This will cut down weed growth. Start your warm weather plants as soon as you can to keep the soil from being bare for too long. At the end of the season, plant cover crops such as rye grass, winter wheat, or oats to prevent weeds from finding a home in your garden.

11. Avoid Watering Weeds

If you can water only the plants that need it, you may avoid the cultivation of weeds in unplanted areas, paths, and areas where they are not welcome—and where they would dry up if not watered!

12. Let Them Grow…Temporarily

Encourage weeds to grow before you plant your garden. Lay sheets of clear plastic over your garden in early spring to warm up the soil and encourage weeds to germinate. Once the weeds are several inches above the soil, pull or hoe them out. Then plant your own crops.

Bonus: Eat Them!

Yes, some weeds—lamb’s quarters, amaranth, purslane, and others—are edible when young and tender! Instead of destroying them, consider cultivation! Learn more about eating your weeds.

Cover Crops in Fall/Winter

Also, at the end of the season after you harvest your veggies, plant cover crops, like wheat, clover, and barley. They are beneficial plants that give back to the soil but also keep weeds from growing and soil erosion from occuring. In some situations, you can use a cover crop in the shoulder seasons to block out weeds. See our list of cover crops.

Expert Video: Easy Weeding

In this video, we demonstrate some weeding techniques and explain which methods work best for different types of weeds, as well as how to use mulches and weed barriers for future protection.

Know Your Enemy

Above all, knowing how to identify the most invasive and destructive weeds is key to keeping your garden defended from weeds. Check out our list of common weeds to help identify what’s growing in your garden and learn how best to get rid of it.

Sun Safety

While only people along the path of totality will see the ring, much of the Southern Hemisphere will enjoy the celestial phenomenon of a partial eclipse, when the moon seems to take a bite out of the sun.

Viewers in most of Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia will be able to see the moon covering up to 40 percent of the sun, while folks in most of Argentina, Uruguay, and southern and equatorial Africa will see up to 90 percent covered.

Check out the time tables at EclipseWise.com for specific viewing hours in cities across South America and Africa.

Remember to never look directly at the sun without proper eye protection, even when the sun is visible as only a thin crescent during an eclipse.

If you are using a telescope or camera, you can use specially designed solar filters over the front lenses to avoid eye damage. You can also watch with special eclipse viewing glasses that sufficiently reduce the sun's brightness and filter out its harmful rays.

Eclipse fans can get indirect views of the event by building an eclipse viewer, which projects an image of the sun onto a flat surface.

If you are clouded out or can’t make it into the eclipse pathway, the robotic telescopes of astronomy outreach venture Slooh will offer a live stream of the encounter beginning at 7:00 a.m. ET on February 26.

And if you do miss this event, a much more dramatic total eclipse of the sun will occur on August 21, when the moon’s shadow will completely blot out the sun in a path that cuts right across the continental United States.

Andrew Fazekas, the Night Sky Guy, is the author of Star Trek: The Official Guide to Our Universe and host of NG Live! Mankind to Mars presentations. Follow him on

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