First Soviet spacecraft with which Juri Gagarin and a series of cosmonatutas after him carried out, in the early 1960s, the first space flights in Earth orbit.
The Vostok was constituted by a sphere of 2.3 m. in diameter and a weight of 2,400 kg., inside which there was room for a cosmonaut, and by a cylindrical section of approximately the same weight, containing supplies and services. On the outside the sphere was covered by a protective shield to resist high temperatures caused by rubbing, and a reflective surface to prevent overheating during periods of exposure to sunlight.
The cabin offered good air conditioning with an artificial atmosphere similar to the one we breathe on Earth at sea level. The cylindrical section, which also acted as a coupling with the upper part of the missile destined to put the Vostok 1 into orbit, contained the retro-rocket to slow the ship's run in the return phase, the propellant deposits and the gas tanks necessary to produce the artificial atmosphere.
In the phase of return to Earth the cosmonaut did not remain inside the capsule, but was expelled with all its seat and descended with a parachute. The modified Vostok spacecraft in its interior, gave way to the Voskhod, which transported up to three cosmonauts.
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