How and where does Cosmology come from? The human being has always been interested in knowing and understanding the Universe in which he lives and the laws that govern him.
From different points of view, Philosophy, Religion and Science have tried to answer these questions. The Science that studies the Universe as a whole is called Cosmology or also, nature philosophy.
Cosmology deals scientifically with aspects such as the composition of the Universe, its structure, form, origin, evolution and final destination. To do this, it uses astronomical observation and scientific knowledge.
Other sciences such as Astronomy, Physics and Mathematics are very useful for Cosmology. Technological advances are fundamental in the development of modern Cosmology.
Modern Cosmology begins around the year 1700. Then the idea was raised for the first time that all the stars of the Milky Way form a grouping in the middle of a much larger Universe. Before, it was believed that our galaxy was the entire Universe.
In the S. XX Cosmology was marked by two major advances: theory of relativity of Einstein, and the inflationary theory. Relativity unifies space, time and gravity, and changes the vision of the fabric of the Universe. Inflationary theory states that space expanded very rapidly after the Big Bang.
Current science admits and, therefore, cosmology is based on:
- The Universe is flat and about 13.7 billion years old.
- This Universe is in rapid expansion.
- There is background radiation as a result of quantum fluctuations that occurred in the period of inflation. These fluctuations caused gravitational collapses that formed the galaxies.
- "Normal" matter or baryonic it only comprises 4.9% of the total energy density of the universe; there is an extra 27% density of invisible matter that we call dark matter, of which we know only its gravitational effects, and the remaining 68% exists in the form of dark undetected energy and of which we only know its accelerating effects.
Today, the study of Cosmology focuses on Particle Physics. The main instrument of the current Cosmology is not the telescopes, but the large particle accelerators. They look for particles that help solve mysteries such as the composition of dark matter, what happened in the first moments of the Universe, or if there are other dimensions that we don't see.