Astronomy

How does one “use” the Pan-Starrs data?

How does one “use” the Pan-Starrs data?


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I've seen that a large block of Pan-Starrs data has been released and is available on-line and how the distributors of the data expect professionals and the general public to use the data in their research. I am part of the general public and was wondering how accessible the data actually is? For instance if i were interested in searching a small section of sky for a moving object, i would need multiple "photos" "data sets"? over time in order to see the movement. Would special software be required? How would one even start the process?


There are two main datasets available from the PanSTARRS survey which are available from the archive at MAST/STScI. These are the Object Catalog, a (large) list of parameters such as position, brightness, shape etc (full list of catalog fields) and the Image Cutouts service which, well, cuts out sections of the images. (The survey went over the same patch of sky several times in 5 filters so there are deeper stacks available)

If you are looking for moving objects then you will need to use the "warp" single epoch images as a moving object would be averaged away in the stack (unless it was done on the object's motion). You will also need a source of positions in order to cutout the suitable postage stamps in the right places as the PanSTARRS archive doesn't support querying by moving objects or orbital elements. You would need to use something like the Minor Planet Center's Ephemeris Service or JPL's HORIZONS service to generate these positions (use 'F51' as the Observatory Code/Observers Location as this is the MPC site code for PanSTARRS1). Once you have a source of positions, you will probably want to investigate querying the Image Cutout Service via script/code; the Image Cutout Service documentation has instructions and a Python Jupyter notebook showing how to do this.

I should also caution you that one of the goals of the PanSTARRS survey, which my institution was a partner in, was to find moving objects. A lot of effort was put into the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS; paper, which I'm on, available (for free) here at IOPscience) and PanSTARRS was one of the two major sources of new Near Earth Objects (NEOs), see purpley bars in this plot at the Center for NEO Studies. I'm not saying there isn't new moving objects in there, we go back and search through the PanSTARRS data for precoveries of newly discovered NEOs that the automatic software missed on a roughly monthly basis, but bear this in mind before launching into a big project.


If you are looking for images of a particular moving object, the Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) has indexed the Pan-STARRS collection. You can enter an object name, orbital elements, an arc or an ephemeris and find images of that object.

https://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/


Pan-STARRS

The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS1 obs. code: F51 and Pan-STARRS2 obs. code: F52) located at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, US, consists of astronomical cameras, telescopes and a computing facility that is surveying the sky for moving or variable objects on a continual basis, and also producing accurate astrometry and photometry of already-detected objects. In January 2019 the second Pan-STARRS data release was announced. At 1.6 petabytes, it is the largest volume of astronomical data ever released.


This Is How Astronomers Solved The 'Zone Of Avoidance' Mystery

Even from our location, there’s a great lesson to be learned: the galactic plane obscures the . [+] Universe beyond it, about 10 degrees above and below it, in visible light, as shown here. If you want to see what lies beyond our galaxy — or any dusty galaxy — just look in the infrared, and watch the Universe open up to you.

From the time of their very first discovery, the Universe's grand spirals have puzzled astronomers.

This ultraviolet composite image of the Andromeda galaxy, taken by the GALEX spacecraft, showcases . [+] the youngest, bluest stars of all, which trace out the spiral arms and the galactic bulge. Andromeda was the first spiral nebula to be identified as a galaxy beyond our own. Note the extended nature of the arms, which indicates that new waves of star formation may be triggered by mild tidal disruptions.

While stars, star clusters and other nebulae were concentrated in the plane of our Milky Way, there were no spiral nebulae present.

The Milky way's central region in visible light, with the location of the galactic center marked by . [+] E. Siegel. Billions of stars can be found there, and Pan-STARRS has collected data on more of them than ever before. Near the plane of the galaxy, however, there are no spiral nebulae to be found. At least, not in visible light.

For some reason, they eschewed our galaxy's plane, which became known as the Zone of Avoidance.

A map of star density in the Milky Way and surrounding sky, clearly showing the Milky Way, the Large . [+] and Small Magellanic Clouds (our two largest satellite galaxies), and if you look more closely, NGC 104 to the left of the SMC, NGC 6205 slightly above and to the left of the galactic core, and NGC 7078 slightly below. There are a great many galaxies to be discovered, but within about 10 degrees above and below the galactic plane, visible light cannot reveal them.

Upon discovering that spiral nebulae were galaxies beyond our own, the problem made more sense.

A small selection of the galaxy as seen by Pan-STARRS, where dust is very dense, but the grains . [+] themselves are little different than anywhere else. This survey provides the most comprehensive 3D data ever taken.

Danny Farrow, Pan-STARRS1 Science Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestial Physics

Dust, gas, and concentrated matter blocks the light from more distant objects, obscuring them.

Visible (left) and infrared (right) views of the dust-rich Bok globule, Barnard 68. The infrared . [+] light is not blocked nearly as much, as the smaller-sized dust grains are too little to interact with the long-wavelength light. At longer wavelengths, more of the Universe beyond the light-blocking dust can be revealed.

The dust itself is composed of matter grains of specific sizes, preferentially blocking shorter-wavelength photons.

The dark regions show very dense dust clouds. The red stars tend to be reddened by dust, while the . [+] blue stars are in front of the dust clouds. These images are part of a survey of the southern galactic plane.

Legacy Survey/NOAO, AURA, NSF

Even modern 3D dust maps show this dust grain size is independent of its location in the galaxy.

As a result, infrared telescopes can see through the dust, revealing the material behind it.

The view of the galactic center in four different wavelength bands. Atop, from the ATLASGAL survey . [+] at 870 microns below that, from Spitzer in the mid-IR below that, from ESO's VISTA in the near-IR, and at the bottom in visible light, where the dust obscures everything of interest.

ESO/ATLASGAL consortium/NASA/GLIMPSE consortium/VVV Survey/ESA/Planck/D. Minniti/S. Guisard Acknowledgement: Ignacio Toledo, Martin Kornmesser

Not only can we reveal the structure of our own galaxy from within, but we at last found galaxies behind it.

Italian astronomer Paolo Maffei's promising work on infrared astronomy culminated in the discovery . [+] of galaxies — like Maffei 1 and 2, shown here — in the plane of the Milky Way itself. Maffei 1, the giant elliptical galaxy at the lower left, is the closest giant elliptical to the Milky Way, yet went undiscovered until 1967.

WISE mission NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA

The first galaxies found in the Zone of Avoidance are named Maffei 1 and 2, after Paolo Maffei, who pioneered infrared astronomy.

What we call “the Zone of Avoidance” isn’t, as we commonly present it, a nearby region with very few . [+] galaxies. Although we’ve seen very few galaxies, in reality it’s most probably a region with just as many galaxies as the rest of the Universe, that just happens to be hard to see from our vantage point!

mic Flows Project/University of Hawaii

Galaxies are just as rich in the Zone of Avoidance as anyplace else.

Many galaxies, particularly young and dusty ones, emit most of their energy in the infrared portion . [+] of the spectrum. If we want to find the brightest galaxies of all, we'll need a next-generation infrared space telescope. The Fireworks galaxy, from NASA's Spitzer space telescope, is a local example of a predominantly infrared galaxy, and galaxies such as this can be revealed in the infrared thanks to infrared observatories such as Spitzer and WISE.

NASA / JPL-Caltech / SSC / R. Kennicutt et al.

Thanks to viewing the Universe with infrared eyes, the mystery is now solved.

Although the vast majority of infrared emission comes from the plane of the Milky Way itself, where . [+] stars and gas and dust are primarily located, many galaxies can be viewed beyond it. When you look in the right wavelengths of light, the distribution of galaxies appears random the Zone of Avoidance is an artifact of looking in visible wavelengths. where light-blocking is very efficient.


PS1 / IPP Public Data Distribution

Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) is an astronomical observatory dedicated to surveying the sky in optical wavelengths. The telescope is located at the summit of Haleakala on the Hawaiian island of Maui. Data collected by the telescope are automatically processed by the PS1 Image Processing Pipeline (IPP).

The PS1 telescope has been in full survey operations since May 2010. In the intervening period, it is surveyed the 3/4 of the sky visible from Hawaii repeatedly in 5 bands. This "3pi" survey gets the major portion of the telescope time (56%), with the remaining time going to a variety of deep survey fields and dedicated asteroid search time.

One of the major goals of the 3pi survey is the construction of a high-quality photometric reference catalog covering the 3pi region (Dec > -30 deg).

These web pages provide the public access to data products related to the PS1 surveys, with particular emphasis on the bulk photometry (and eventually astrometry) datasets.

Please include the following acknowledgement text in any publications which make use of data from Pan-STARRS 1:

The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).


New Record! Telescope Finds 19 Asteroids in One Night

A telescope high atop a volcano peak in Hawaii has set a new asteroid-hunting record: 19 space rocks discovered in one night, the most ever by a single telescope, astronomers say.

The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope, located at the summit of Maui's Haleakala volcano, set the mark on Jan. 29, discovering 19 near-Earth asteroids. Two of the space rocks have orbits that will bring them extremely close to our planet in the next 100 years, so scientists will be keeping an eye on them, researchers said.

"This record number of discoveries shows that PS1 is the world's most powerful telescope for this kind of study," Nick Kaiser of the University of Hawaii, head of the Pan-STARRS project, said in a statement Thursday (Feb. 24). "NASA and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's support of this project illustrates how seriously they are taking the threat from near-Earth asteroids."

Hunting for asteroids

Scientists discover asteroids by tracking their movement against the relatively static background of stars. To confirm their finds, researchers must make multiple observations within a few days or so to define the asteroids' orbits.

Otherwise, the asteroids are likely to be "lost," researchers said. Pan-STARRS PS1, which has been billed as the world's largest digital camera, is designed to snap hundreds of photos of the sky each night, then compare them to find moving asteroids in deep space.

Pan-STARRS astronomers picked up 30 potential asteroids on the night of Jan. 29. They sent their discoveries to the Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Mass., which collects and distributes data about asteroids and comets, allowing other astronomers to re-observe the objects.

This helps spread the confirmation workload around to different teams, but the weather didn't cooperate well in this case, researchers said.

"Usually there are several mainland observatories that would help us confirm our discoveries, but widespread snowstorms there closed down many of them, so we had to scramble to confirm many of the discoveries ourselves," said Richard Wainscoat, also of the University of Hawaii.

Confirming the candidates

Wainscoat and several colleagues spent the next three nights following Jan. 29 searching for the asteroids, using telescopes at Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii.

They were able to confirm 12 of the space rocks, and other telescopes around the world confirmed another seven, bringing the total to 19.

The other 11 candidates got away, moving too far to be found, researchers said.

Two of the newly discovered space rocks will zip pretty close to Earth in the relatively near future. They pose no immediate danger, but a collision in the next century or so cannot be ruled out, researchers said.

The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope ("PanSTARRS" is short for Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System) was designed specifically to hunt for potentially threatening asteroids. It has a main mirror 60 inches (1.8 meters) wide and a powerful digital imaging system that includes a 1,400-megapixel camera.

PS1 began searching for asteroids in May 2010. The telescope takes more than 500 photos of the sky every night, researchers said.

A NASA team and other dedicated astronomers routinely search for near-Earth asteroids that could pose a potential impact risk to Earth.


Abstract

We present the discovery of 57 wide (>5") separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 31 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS 1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 23 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogs (79170 stars, mostly M dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of

10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 82%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0."13, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.


Looking to our Future

Stars follow different paths as they age, determined by their mass, with the most massive burning their fuel exponentially faster.

Smaller stars, like our Sun, live long lives. As they start to run out of hydrogen fuel in their core, they expand and turn red, becoming red giants. The byproducts of fusion collect in the core and, if the star is massive enough, eventually ignite in a new stage of fusion. At the end of their lives, these stars puff off their outer layers leaving behind the core of the star, known as a white dwarf.

Heavier stars, however, burn through their fuel, and the subsequent byproducts, much faster than low mass stars. The energy made by the fusion of heavier and heavier elements balanced the star against the force of gravity. These reactions continued until they formed iron in the core of the star. At this point, further nucleosynthesis would consume rather than produce energy, so gravity then caused the star to implode causing a spectacular explosion known as supernova. After a supernova, some stars leave behind a super dense neutron star, while the heaviest stars leave a black hole.

Based on our understanding of stellar evolution, the Sun will start to run out of core hydrogen in about 5 billion years. The Sun will expand, engulfing several of the inner planets, including Earth.


Pan-STARRS Solves The Biggest Problem Facing Every Astronomer

A small selection of the galaxy as seen by Pan-STARRS provides the most comprehensive 3D data ever . [+] taken. Image credit: Danny Farrow, Pan-STARRS1 Science Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestial Physics.

When you look out at any object in the Universe, the easiest thing to measure is how bright it is. But what you're seeing might not accurately measure what the object is actually doing. Gas, dust and the atmosphere all contribute to blocking some of the light, preventing it from reaching your eyes. As atmospheric conditions change over time, what you see might change as well. Observations you make in the bluer part of the spectrum might be affected differently than observations in the redder part, as dust grains of different sizes have different sensitivities to a variety of wavelengths. If you're looking at something hundreds, thousands or millions of light years away, you'll need an entirely different calibration, all dependent on what's between you and the object you're trying to observe. It's astronomy's hardest problem: understanding how light is affected from when its emitted until it reaches your eye.

Pan-STARRS1 Observatory atop Haleakala Maui at sunset. Image credit: Rob Ratkowski.

The Pan-STARRS1 observatory, after three years of observing all of the sky it's capable of seeing from its perch in Hawaii, has just made public the results from the largest digital sky survey in history. Pan-STARRS sports the world's largest camera, taking a 1.4 gigapixel image every 45 seconds. In a single night, it collects almost a terabyte of astronomical data over three years of observations, that adds up to almost two petabytes: two quadrillion bytes of data. Every region of the sky accessible to it -- spanning 75% of the entire Universe -- has been imaged at least 60 times total: 12 times apiece in each of five different wavelength bands. The data is publicly available today, but what it means for science is unprecedented.

Every time a professional astronomer makes an observation, they have to calibrate their data. They need to know what they're looking at in some standardized way. According to Ken Chambers, the director of Pan-STARRS observatory, every ground-based observatory will use these images and catalogs for their day-to-day observations. The previous large survey used for calibrations -- the Digitized Sky Survey 2 -- was good to about 13 milli-magnitudes, or an absolute brightness of about 1.2%. Thanks to Pan-STARRS, that's been lowered to only 3 or 4 milli-magnitudes, or an absolute brightness of around 0.3%. Unlike previous surveys that surveyed the sky once or twice, Pan-STARRS surveyed it over and over again, enabling this unprecedented catalog.

The near-Earth objects discovered on a year-by-year basis. Since Pan-STARRS began operations, it's . [+] discovered about a third of the total NEO population known to humanity. Image credit: NASA / JPL, via http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/.

The science that came out of it alone is staggering. Nobody has had as much astronomical data in all of history as what Pan-STARRS has produced. They've discovered about 3,000 new near-Earth objects tens of thousands of asteroids in the main belt, approximately 300 Kuiper belt objects (about a third of all the Kuiper belt objects ever discovered), and imaged a total of more than three billion verified objects. For those of you wondering, there's no evidence for or against Planet Nine in the data, but the Pan-STARRS data does support that our Solar System ejected a fifth gas giant in its distant past.

Because the vast majority of these objects are stars within our own galaxy, and they've imaged them at different wavelengths so many time, they've been able to create the first 3D map of dust spanning the entire Milky Way. They've cataloged and categorized more stars than ever before, more deep-sky objects than ever before, and have given us a better understanding of what's present in our galactic plane than we've ever known previously.

The Milky way's central region in visible light, with the location of the galactic center marked by . [+] E. Siegel. Billions of stars can be found there, and Pan-STARRS has collected data on more of them than ever before. Image credit: Jaime Fernández, via http://www.castillosdesoria.com/astropics/imagen.asp?id=1&seccion=1&id_prod=246.

Stars can be classified by their color and magnitude to a better accuracy than ever before thanks to Pan-STARRS. From that, we can learn what type of star they are, where they are in their evolutionary sequence and what's a dwarf, giant or other exotic type of star. We've also learned their distances and how much dust (and of what type) is present in the space between us and each star observed. All of the calibrated data is now freely available, and it empowers every astronomer to have a better starting point for every observation they make than was ever possible before. The European Space Agency's GAIA mission -- in space -- will only be about half as good as Pan-STARRS at this.

Observatories like Hubble and SDSS will have better calibration information thanks to Pan-STARRS . [+] even for observations of distant galaxies and quasars. Image credit: ESA, NASA, K. Sharon (Tel Aviv University) and E. Ofek (Caltech).

Although the greatest leap forward will be for measurements within our own galaxy, the most distant observations go all the way out to galaxies and quasars at a redshift of z

7, at a time when the Universe was only 6% of its current age. From new transients like asteroids and comets to ultra-distant supernovae, the Pan-STARRS database will be the new gold standard for identifying previously unseen objects in the Universe. Every observation, moving forward, has a new gold standard of calibrations to rely on. Every observatory will do their observatory work better, making Pan-STARRS the unsung hero of all astronomical observations to come. And because the data is publicly available, there's a treasure trove of new discoveries just waiting to be found. It won't be superseded until the 2030s, when the LSST has been operational for a decade. It isn't even scheduled to come online until 2022.

This compressed view of the entire sky visible from Hawai'i by the Pan-STARRS1 Observatory is the . [+] result of half a million exposures, each about 45 seconds in length. Image credit: Danny Farrow, Pan-STARRS1 Science Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics.

If you were to print out the Pan-STARRS map of the Universe that it sees at full resolution, it would stretch for more than two kilometers in length. But it's more than just a pretty picture. The data is something that every astronomer in the world should be using -- and the Pan-STARRS collaboration is one they should be thanking (and citing) -- every time they look at the sky.


Billions of Stars and Galaxies to Be Discovered in the Largest Cosmic Map Ever

Published on 12/20/2016 at 2:04 PM

Need precision observations of a nearby star? Want to measure the light-years to a distant galaxy? Or do you just want to stare into the deep unknown and discover something no one has ever seen before? No problem! The Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) has got you covered after releasing the biggest digital sky survey ever carried out to the world.

"The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys allow anyone to access millions of images and use the database and catalogs containing precision measurements of billions of stars and galaxies," said Ken Chambers, Director of the Pan-STARRS Observatories, in a statement. "Pan-STARRS has made discoveries from Near Earth Objects and Kuiper Belt Objects in the Solar System to lonely planets between the stars it has mapped the dust in three dimensions in our galaxy and found new streams of stars and it has found new kinds of exploding stars and distant quasars in the early universe."

The Pan-STARRS project is managed by the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy (IfA) and the vast database is now available by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Md. To say this survey is "big" is actually a disservice to just how gargantuan a data management task it is. According the IfA, the entire survey takes up two petabytes of data, which, as the university playfully puts it, "is equivalent to one billion selfies, or one hundred times the total content of Wikipedia."

This heady task was completed by just one telescope atop Haleakalā, on Maui, which scanned the visible and near-infrared sky from 2010 to 2014.

"Pan-STARRS is a relatively small telescope when compared with the big ones we have on Mauna Kea . but it has the biggest astronomical camera in the world one and a half billion pixels in the camera compared with the 10 million in your typical digital camera at home," said astronomer Eugene Magnier, of the University of Hawaii. If they had printed the survey in one giant photograph, Magnier added, the photo would be one and a half miles long.

The sheer detail captured in the survey, and the fact that the entire database has been made available online, means that it will be used for many years to come by professional and amateur astronomers to make discoveries about the cosmos.

"It's a census of the universe and the sorts of things people will learn by digging into the details of that census will be enormous," said Kenneth Chambers, also an astronomer at the University of Hawaii.

The researchers estimate there to be three billion astronomical sources in the vast cosmic map, so with this release will likely come a slew of new science.

The survey is supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation, with collaborations across 10 research institutions in four countries, and public access to all of the precious data has been made possible through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which has many years of experience with storing and managing huge quantities of astronomical data for the Hubble Space Telescope and other projects.


A whopping 1.6 petabytes of Pan-STARRS data now available

A Pan-STARRS all-sky image showing 800 million discrete sources. Click on image for a zoomed-in view. Image: R. White (STScI) and the PS1 Science Consortium

The Space Telescope Science Institute and the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy have released the second edition of the Pan-STARRS digital sky survey, a record volume containing more than 1.6 petabytes of astronomical data. That’s 1.6 million gigabytes, 30,000 times the total content of Wikipedia or the equivalent of two billion selfies.

The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System – Pan-STARRS – uses a 1.8-metre telescope and a 1.4-billion-pixel digital camera to survey the visible sky in visible and near-infrared wavelengths, on the lookout for transient, variable and moving objects, including asteroids that might be on a collision course with Earth.

The system went into operation atop Mount Haleakala in Hawaii in 2010 and spent its first four years scanning the entire visible sky 12 times using five filters. Data release No. 2, announced this week, provides astronomers and the public with access to every individual exposure, giving researchers the exact locations of more than 3 billion sources.

“Pan-STARRS DR2 represents a vast quantity of astronomical data, with many great discoveries already unveiled,” said Heather Flewelling, a researcher at the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii and a designer of the PS1 database. “These discoveries just barely scratch the surface of what is possible, however, and the astronomy community will now be able to dig deep, mine the data, and find the astronomical treasures within that we have not even begun to imagine.”

Said database engineer Conrad Holmberg: “We put the universe in a box and everyone can take a peek.”

The Pan-STARS observatory atop Mount Haleakala in Hawaii. Image: R. Ratkowski

The initial Pan-STARRS public data release came in late 2016, but it did not include the individual images at each epoch in time.

“The Pan-STARRS1 Survey allows anyone access to millions of images and catalogs containing precision measurements of billions of stars, galaxies, and moving objects,” said Ken Chambers, director of the Pan-STARRS Observatories. “While searching for near earth objects, Pan-STARRS has made many discoveries from ‘Oumuamua passing through our solar system to lonely planets between the stars.

“It has mapped the dust in three dimensions in our galaxy and found new streams of stars and it has found new kinds of exploding stars and distant quasars in the early universe. We hope people will discover all kinds of things we missed in this incredibly large and rich dataset.”



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